Somalia has been in a state of civil war and anarchy since 1991, when the central government of Mohammed Siad Barre was overthrown. Various clan-based armed groups took control of parts of Somalia, while its northern part, Somaliland, declared independence.
In second half of the 2000s, the international recognized Transitional Federal Government managed to control most of the territory, with the help of Ethiopia. In 2012, a federal Constitution was adopted followed by the formation of the Federal Government of Somalia. The government’s mandate is slated to end in 2015 with the adoption of a new constitution and elections.