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Famine defined: Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) system

The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) system was created by the UN in 2005 to objectively classify need to help allocate resources. It uses information from surveys conducted by the UN and other agencies on the ground. IPC global partner agencies include: CARE, FAO, FEWSNET, Save the Children, Oxfam, and WFP]

According to the classification, Famine/Catastrophe is the fifth and worst stage of food insecurity. The description, criteria and appropriate responses for each phases are listed below.

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Phase 1: No Acute Food Insecurity

Summary Description

  • Household groups do not experience short term instability; -OR-
  • Household groups experience short term instability but are able to meet basic food needs without atypical coping strategies

Contributing Factors

  • Hazards & Vulnerability
    • None or minimal effects of hazards and vulnerability causing short-term instability
  • Food Availability, Access, Utilization, Stability
    • NDC [NDC = not a defining characteristic]
  • Human Water Requirement from Improved Source
    • NDC

Household Outcomes

  • Food Consumption (Quantity & Quality)
    • NDC
  • Livelihood Change (Assets & Strategies)
    • NDC
  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • NDC
  • Mortality
    • NDC

Area Contextual Outcomes

  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • NDC
  • Death Rate
    • NDC

General Action Framework

  • Monitoring

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Phase 2: Stressed

Summary Description

  • Household group experiences short term instability; -AND-
  • Household group food consumption is reduced but minimally adequate without having to engage in irreversible coping strategies

Contributing Factors

  • Hazards & Vulnerability
    • Effects of hazards and vulnerability causing short-term instability and stressing livelihoods and food consumption
  • Food Availability, Access, Utilization, Stability
    • Stressed, borderline adequate, and short-term unstable
  • Human Water Requirement from Improved Source
    • Water: >= 15 liters pppd, unstable [pppd = per person per day]

Household Outcomes

  • Food Consumption (Quantity & Quality)
    • Quantity: Minimally adequate (2,100kcal pp/day) & unstable
    • Quality: Minimally adequate micro-nutrients & unstable
    • HDDS: Reduced and unstable dietary diversity but meeting most nutrient needs [HDDS = household dietary diversity score]
    • FCS: Acceptable consumption [FCS = food consumption scale]
    • HHS: None or slight (scores 0-1) [HHS = household hunger scale]
    • CSI: = Reference, but unstable [CSI = coping strategies index]
    • HEA: Small or moderate Livelihood Protection Deficit [HEA = household economy analysis]
  • Livelihood Change (Assets & Strategies)
    • Livelihood: Stressed
    • Coping Strategies:’Insurance Strategies’
  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Presence of mildly acutely malnourished child and/or mother
  • Mortality
    • Unchanged

Area Contextual Outcomes

  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Wasting Rate: 3-10%, unstable
    • BMI < 18.5 Rates: 10-20%, unstable [BMI = body mass index]
  • Death Rate
    • CDR: < 0.5/10,000/day, unstable [CDR = crude death rate]
    • U5DR: <= 1/10,000/day, unstable [U5DR = under five crude death rate]

General Action Framework

  • Disaster Risk Reduction
    • Preparedness, prevention, and mitigation
    • Reduce vulnerability and build resilience
    • Complimentary sectoral support
    • Close monitoring
    • Advocacy

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Phase 3: Crisis

Summary Description

  • Household group experiences short term instability; -AND-
  • Household group has significant food consumption gaps with high or above usual acute malnutrition; -OR-
  • Household group is marginally able to meet minimum food needs only with irreversible coping strategies such as liquidating livelihood assets or diverting expenses from essential nonfood items

Contributing Factors

  • Hazards & Vulnerability
    • Effects of hazards and vulnerability causing short-term instability resulting in loss of assets and/or significant food consumption deficits
  • Food Availability, Access, Utilization, Stability
    • Inadequate and short-term unstable
  • Human Water Requirement from Improved Source
    • Water: 7.5 to 15 liters pppd; unstable [pppd = per person per day]

Household Outcomes

  • Food Consumption (Quantity & Quality)
    • Quantity: Significant gap-OR- 2,100 kcal pp/day via asset stripping
    • Quality: Significant lack of micro-nutrients -OR-adequate micronutrients pp/day via asset stripping
    • HDDS: Acute dietary diversity deficit limiting key micronutrients [HDDS = household dietary diversity score]
    • FCS: Borderline consumption [FCS = food consumption scale]
    • HHS: Moderate (scores 2-3) [HHS = household hunger scale]
    • CSI: > Reference and increasing [CSI = coping strategies index]
    • HEA: Substantial Livelihood Protection Deficit-OR- Small Survival Deficit <20% [HEA = household economy analysis]
  • Livelihood Change (Assets & Strategies)
    • Livelihood: Accelerated depletion
    • Coping Strategies: ‘Crisis Strategies’
  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Presence of moderately acutely malnourished child and/or mother
  • Mortality
    • Marginal increase; unstable

Area Contextual Outcomes

  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Wasting Rate: 10-15%-OR- > usual & increasing; or oedema
    • BMI < 18.5 Rates: 20-40%, 1.5 x greater than reference [BMI = body mass index]
  • Death Rate
    • CDR: 0.5-1/10,000/day, unstable [CDR = crude death rate]
    • U5DR: 1-2/10,000/day, unstable [U5DR = under five crude death rate]

General Action Framework

  • Protect Livelihoods
    • Livelihood support programmes and limited resource transfer to increase food availability, access, and/or utilization
    • Complimentary sectoral support
    • Close monitoring
    • Advocacy

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Phase 4: Emergency

Summary Description

  • Household group experiences short term instability; -AND-
  • Household group has extreme food consumption gaps resulting in very high acute malnutrition or excess mortality; -OR-
  • Household group has extreme loss of livelihood assets that will likely lead to food consumption gaps

Contributing Factors

  • Hazards & Vulnerability
    • Household group experiences short term instability; -AND-
    • Household group has extreme food consumption gaps resulting in very high acute malnutrition or excess mortality; -OR-
    • Household group has extreme loss of livelihood assets that will likely lead to food consumption gaps
  • Food Availability, Access, Utilization, Stability
    • Extremely inadequate and short-term unstable
  • Human Water Requirement from Improved Source
    • Water: 4 to 7.5 liters pppd, unstable [pppd = per person per day]

Household Outcomes

  • Food Consumption (Quantity & Quality)
    • Quantity: Extreme gap; much below 2,100kcal pp/day
    • Quality: Extreme lack of micro-nutrients
    • HDDS: Acute dietary diversity deficit limiting key micronutrients and macronutrients [HDDS = household dietary diversity score]
    • FCS: Poor consumption [FCS = food consumption scale]
    • HHS: Severe (scores 4-6) [HHS = household hunger scale]
    • CSI: Significantly> reference [CSI = coping strategies index]
    • HEA: Survival Deficit [HEA = household economy analysis]
  • Livelihood Change (Assets & Strategies)
    • Livelihood: Irreversible depletion
    • Coping Strategies:’Distress Strategies’
  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Presence of severely acutely malnourished child and/or mother
  • Mortality
    • Significant increase

Area Contextual Outcomes

  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Wasting Rate: 15-30%-OR- > usual & increasing; oedema
    • BMI < 18.5 Rates: > 40% [BMI = body mass index]
  • Death Rate
    • CDR: 1-2/10,000/day -OR-> 2x reference [CDR = crude death rate]
    • U5DR: 2-4/10,000/day [U5DR = under five crude death rate]

General Action Framework

  • Save Lives & Livelihoods
    • Resource transfer and livelihood support programmes to increase food availability, access, and/or utilization
    • Complimentary sectoral support
    • Close monitoring
    • Advocacy

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Phase – 5: Famine/Catastrophe

Summary Description

  • Household group experiences short term instability;  -AND-
  • Household group has near complete lack of food and/or other basic needs where starvation, death, and destitution are evident

Contributing Factors

  • Hazards & Vulnerability
    • Effects of hazards and vulnerability causing short-term instability resulting in near complete collapse of livelihood assets and/or massive food consumption deficits
  • Food Availability, Access, Utilization, Stability
    • Effectively no availability, access, and utilization; volatile
  • Human Water Requirement from Improved Source:
    • Water: < 4 liters pppd, unstable [pppd = per person per day]

Household Outcomes

  • Food Consumption (Quantity & Quality) –
    • Quantity & Quantity:Effectively complete gap
    • HDDS: Extreme dietary deficit of both micro and macronutrients [HDDS = household dietary diversity score]
    • FCS: [Below] poor consumption [FCS = food consumption scale]
    • HHS: Severe (6) [HHS = household hunger scale]
    • CSI: Far> reference [CSI = coping strategies index]
    • HEA: Survival Deficit>20% [HEA = household economy analysis]
  • Livelihood Change (Assets & Strategies)
    • Livelihood: Near complete collapse
    • Coping Strategies:Effectively no ability to cope
  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Presence of several severely acutely malnourished children and/or adolescents/adults
  • Mortality
  • Death is evident in most households

Area Contextual Outcomes

  • Nutrition (Due to Food Deficits)
    • Wasting Rate: > 30%-AND/OR- oedema
    • BMI < 18.5 Rates: far> 40% [BMI = body mass index]
  • Death Rate
    • CDR: > 2/10,000/day [CDR = crude death rate]
    • U5DR: > 4/10,000/day [U5DR = under five crude death rate]

General Action Framework

  • Prevent Total Collapse
    • Critically urgent protection of human lives
    • Comprehensive assistance with basic needs (e.g. food, water, shelter, sanitation, health, etc.)
    • Immediate legal interventions and political-economic negotiations, as necessary
    • Close monitoring
    • Advocacy

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The classifications is taken from FEWS NET website – link

Source: HornAffairs.com

About Daniel Berhane (817 Articles)
Daniel Berhane

Comments

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