Humanitarian Requirements 2012
Joint Government and Humanitarian Partners’ Document
The overall good performance of the 2011 kiremt and deyr rains has resulted in favorable harvest prospects in most parts of the country, apart from some pocket areas in the eastern lowlands. Nevertheless, while the rains have temporarily alleviated water and pasture shortage in the south and south eastern parts of the country, the impact on livestock productivity and overall food security situation is minimal, as full recovery especially in pastoral areas, is expected to take longer time.
The findings of the multi-agency assessment and subsequent monitoring results indicate that approximately 3.2 Million people require relief food assistance in 2012.
The total net emergency food and non-food requirement for the period January to June 2012 amounts to 168.7 millionUSD. The net food requirement, stands at 365,612 MT, estimated to cost around USD 122.3million. In addition, a total of USD 46.4million is required to respond to non-food needs of identified beneficiaries in the health and nutrition, water and sanitation and agriculture and education sectors.
Table 1: Summary of Humanitarian Requirements (USD)-2012
3. The 2012 Food and Non-Food Humanitarian Requirements
3.1 Relief Food Needs
The primary objectives of the emergency food intervention are to save lives in crisis situations, protect livelihoods, enhance resilience to shocks, and support the improved nutritional and health status of children, pregnant and lactating women and other vulnerable individuals.
As per the findings of the 2011 meher assessment and further review and endorsement by Regional State and Administrative Council around million people require emergency food assistance from January – June, 2012; Out of which, around 34.4 % are from Somali Region and 33.7 % from Oromia Region, 10.7 %from Tigray Region and 10.2% from Amhara Region.
The total food requirement is estimated at 365,612 MT, including 296,042 MT of cereals, 29,604 MT of pulses, 8,881 MT of oil and 31,084 MT of blended food, (see Table 3 below).
Table 3: Affected population and Relief Food Requirements by Region January – June 2012
3.2 Targeted Supplementary Feeding Programme:
The Targeted Supplementary food (TSF) Programme provides fortified blended food and vegetable oil to under- five children and pregnant and lactating women suffering from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) identified through the EOS/CHD screening. During the first half of 2012, a total of 9,712 MT (USD 11,292,192) of fortified blended food is required to address some 450,000 beneficiaries. Considering available resources (carry over from 2011) amounting to 24,802 MT (USD 24,644,657), the net requirement is nil.
In order to address some of the limitations the TSF implementation modality, some improvements are planned to be made from 2012 onwards such as intervention areas will be changing based on food security analysis conducted twice a year through the meher and belg assessment targeting hotspot priority one woredas; routine identification and screening of beneficiaries will be conducted by the HEW in selected pilot woredas; and food distribution will be monthly and conditioned to monthly anthropometric measurement and follow up by the Health Extension workers.
3.3 Non-Food Needs
3.3.1 Health and Nutrition
To mitigate the occurrence of and/or to minimize the impact of ongoing and impending health and nutrition emergencies during the first half of 2012.
184.108.40.206 Requirements for Health and Nutrition Emergencies
The major health and nutrition related hazards anticipated to occur during the first half of 2012 are nutritional emergency (severe acute malnutrition) in food insecure woredas as well as communicable diseases (AWD and Measles). The mitigation, prevention and control of health and nutrition emergences through SAM management, vitamin A supplementation, prevention and control of AWD and Measles, and strengthening the health service delivery system in high risk woredas through the Mobile Health and Nutrition Teams as well as building the capacity of health personnel are the major activities to be carried out. A total of USD 13,506,157 is required to implement emergency health and nutrition requirements during January to June 2012. The required resources were identified based on the assessment and inputs from other secondary data and scenario projections for the coming months.
Table 4: Summary of Requirements for Health and Nutrition Emergencies (January-June 2012)
Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition: The TFP admission trend has been primarily used to estimate number of TFP beneficiaries for the first half of 2012. The TFP admission projections for the period January to June 2012 were, therefore, made based on the analysis below:
a) It is projected that the reporting rate will be maintained at above 80 percent from January to June 2012, it has observed in the 2010/2011.
b) Review of TFP admission trends in the previous years indicates that TFP admissions start indicating an increasing TFP admission trend between March to June, then stabilizes (higher levels) from June to August coinciding with the peak hunger gap. Though TFP admissions reached its peak in May in 2011, it is projected that peak in TFP admissions will return to a normal pattern in 2012. Based on July to November admission trends from regions, it is projected that monthly TFP admissions will stabilize at December levels in January and February; while an increase is expected as of March. The projected increases in TFP admissions are lower (10_20%) compared to the 32 to 46 percent observed in March to May 2011, since the 2012 outlook in the first half is likely to be near normal or with just weak La Nina effect. It is also anticipated that emergency nutrition responses in hotspot woredas will be initiated in a timely manner with good coverage to mitigate and prevent unusual increase in malnutrition.
c) TFP services expansion through the OTP roll out approach implemented by FMOH supported by partners is expected to continue during January to June 2012, implying that in the overall more children will be accessing TFP services compared to same period in the previous years.
d) The TFP services (including ready to use therapeutic food, routine drugs for SAM management) will be provided in the 452 woredas that have been identified in need of humanitarian assistance, as well as other woredas across the country.
e) Risks associated with other causes of malnutrition, including morbidity due to AWD, Measles, floods, inadequate caring practices and access to health services are likely to either remain at same levels or indicate a slight improvement.
Based on the above planning assumption the total number of TFP beneficiaries for January to June 2012 is projected to be 148,083 at above 80 percent reporting rate. The projection is considered plausible considering the ongoing TFP services expansion at national level. A total of USD 13, 506,157 is required to manage the above estimated TFP caseload from January to June 2012. Considering available resources amounting to USD 11,325,296 the net requirement stands at USD 3,483,004.
Under-five children pregnant and lactating women in the 294 relief woredas will be screened and enrolled in the ongoing nutrition programmes and will also be provided one dose of vitamin A and de-worming tablets in the coming six months. Children between 6-59 months will be provided one dose of vitamin A supplementation. Additionally, one dose of de-worming tablet will be given to children 24-59 months. The total cost of the Vitamin A and de-worming is estimated to be USD 2.2 million.
Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD): An outbreak of AWD is anticipated due to the continued prevalence of risk factors such as previous history of localized AWD outbreaks in different woredas, relatively low coverage of safe drinking water supply, and poor hygienic and sanitary practices. The situation might be further aggravated by the seasonal labor movement and the various public and religious events in various parts of the country. An estimated USD 350,000 is required to effectively prevent and control AWD outbreaks in those high-risk woredas. It is anticipated that 21 woredas are at high risk. Taking into consideration an attack rate of 1 percent a total of 25,000 people will benefit from these interventions.
Measles: During this period measles outbreak is anticipated due to existence of risk factors such as malnutrition among children, low vaccination coverage in some of the woredas (<80% coverage is considered high risks), and the ongoing localized measles outbreaks. In order to prevent and control measles outbreak there is a need for mass vaccination of children below 5 years of age in high risk woredas, on top of effective cast treatment. In the first half of 2012, the Government and humanitarian partners plan to vaccinate an estimated 2.4 million children to prevent outbreaks in the identified at-risk population and also to treat 122,000 children. The resource required to carry out the vaccination (vaccines, injection materials and operational costs) and for case management of sick children is USD 5, 093,056.
Strengthening Public Health Response to Disaster: Strengthening the capacity of the health system in high risk woredas to respond to disasters by providing enhancing disease surveillance, establishing and operating command centers, deployment of rapid response teams, on the job orientation of health staff, monitoring and evaluation of interventions, and providing financial support for operations is critical. To implement such activities a total of USD 618,227 is required.
Support of Health Systems in Risk Prone Regions: This includes the establishment of temporary command centers and delivery of health services through mobile health teams. Special support for delivery of routine health services will be provided in Somali and Afar regions, which are inaccessible and have low service coverage as well as inadequate human resources. The total running cost to support the existing 44 Mobile Health and Nutrition Teams in 44 woredas in the two regions amounts to USD 1,760,000 including the provision of drugs and medical supplies.
* You may read the full document at: http://www.dppc.gov.et/downloadable/reports/appeal/2012/HRD%20Jan-19-2012.pdf