There were developments after my previous post of President Mubarak’s resignation and the 2nd Communiqué from Egypt Army. Later on Friday evening the Egyptian Army issued a 3rd Communiqué and again on Saturday a 4rth Communiqué. It appears the Army issued the Communiqués to assure both the protesters and Egypt’s allies.
On the other hand, it appears that the organizers of the protesters started issuing their own statements by forming a Council. According to The-Guardian:
A group of the activists issued what they called the “People’s Communique No 1” — mirroring the titles of military communiques – listing a series of demands. The included the immediate dissolution of Mubarak’s cabinet and “suspension of the parliament elected in a rigged poll late last year”. The reformists want a transitional administration appointed with four civilians and one military official to prepare for elections in nine months and to oversee the drafting of a new constitution.
[I will post their full statement as soon as I get hold of it.]
One more time, I posted the full text of the communiqués and other statements without discussing them, since the issue is all over the media and I would rather be reading this time. You should be too. Why? First, it is a regional development with implications to Ethiopia and global trade & peace. Moreover, we may be in the line. If you subscribe to the line that price hike is the cause, then global prices are expected to rise in 2011. However, inflation is only a triggering factor. The root cause is the perception that the government has become irresponsive and its officials unaccountable. Plus, the sense of powerlessness. Thus, once the people start protesting and feel empowered, they become ‘uncompromising’ as we are seeing in the Egyptian case. Not only do they fear reprisals from the unaccountable officials, but also because this is the only way they believe they can get things done – riot. It will be unfair to judge them for the repercussions of the political unrest on the nation. Thus, I shall add, it would be folly to count on price control measures, while overlooking issues of good governance. Again, it is futile to urge the people, whom we left at the mercy of officials, to ‘think of’ the implications of political unrest on development and stability.
Read below: The recent Statements from the Egyptian Army. I also posted below previous statements from the Army, Pres. Mubarak and the VP that were not posted in this blog. (The hours are according to Cairo time – which is GMT + 2)
The 4th Communiqué of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (on Saturday, Feb 12/2011)
In the name of God the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,
The fourth statement of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces,
In light of the conditions that exist in the country, and the difficult times that have placed Egypt at a juncture that demands of us all to defend the stability of the nation, and the achievements of the people; And due to the fact that the current phase requires a reordering of the priorities of the state with the objective of meeting the legitimate demands of the people, and of delivering the nation from the current situation; And as the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is aware that the rule of law is not only necessary for the freedom of the individual, but rather it is the only legitimate basis for authority; And with determination, clarity, and faith in all our national, regional and international responsibilities, and with recognition of God’s rights and in the name of God, and with His support, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces announces the following:
First: The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is committed to all matters included in its previous statements.
Second: The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is confident in the ability of Egypt’s people and institutions to get through this critical situation, and to that end, all agencies of the state, and the private sector must play their noble and patriotic role to drive the economy forward, and the people must fulfill their responsibility towards that goal.
Third: The current government, and governors shall continue as a caretaker administration until a new government is formed.
Fourth: The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces aspires to guaranteeing a peaceful transition of authority within a free and democratic system that allows for the assumption of authority by a civilian and elected authority to govern the country and the build of a democratic and free state.
Fifth: The Arab Republic of Egypt is committed to all regional and international obligations and treaties.
Sixth: The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces calls on the great people to cooperate with their siblings and children in the civilian police forces, for affection and cooperation must exist between everyone, and it calls on the civilian police forces must be committed to their slogan “the police serve the people”.
God is the source of success.
The 3rd Communiqué of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (on Friday, Feb 11/’11 – about 10pm Cairo time)
At this historical juncture in the history of Egypt , and in light of the decision by President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak to relinquish the office of the presidency of the Republic and the tasking of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces with the administration of the affairs of the nation , and with awareness of the seriousness of the demands of our great people everywhere for fundamental change , the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces is examining this matter, asking the aid of God Almighty, to fulfill the aspirations of our great people. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces will issue further statements that will announce forthcoming steps, measures and arrangements, and it affirms at the same time that it is not a replacement for the legitimacy that is acceptable to the people.
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces extends its highest salutations and appreciation to President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak for his services over the course of his career in war and peace, and for the patriotic decision he took in choosing the supreme interests of the nation. In this respect, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces extends its highest salutations and admiration to the souls of the martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the freedom and security of their country, and to every one of our great people. May God grant us success.
May God’s Peace, mercy and blessing be upon you.
Statement by Vice President Omar Suleiman – (on Friday, Feb. 11/’11 – about 6pm)
In these difficult times President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has decided to relinquish the presidency of the Republic, and charged the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces with the governance of the nation.
Peace Be Upon You and God’s Mercy and Blessings.
The 2nd Communiqué of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (on Thursday, Feb 11/’11 – about 4pm)
The army issued this statement hours before the VP Suleiman announced Mubarak’s resignation, thus analysts considered it as a defiance on Mubarak.
The full text is posted on this blog. (link)
Statement by Vice President Omar Suleiman – (on Thursday, Feb. 10/’11 – about 11pm?)
(issued hours after the 2nd statement by Mubarak that delegated the power of the President to the Vice President)
1- This is a decisive moment in the history of the nation that entails from all honorable people who are keen on Egypt’s security and stability to stick together, stand to reason, and look to the future.
2- The January 25th youth movement has succeeded in bringing about an important change has started, constitutional decisions have been taken and committees formed to implement the decisions the President took in his speech on the 1st of February.
3- What the President declared today reaffirms sublime national sense, his bias to the people’s legitimate demands, and his commitments to his pledges. This also proves his awareness of this critical and dangerous stage Egypt is now undergoing. The President put the supreme interests of the country over and above any considerations.
4- Following the President’s delegation to me to shoulder the responsibility of the national action to maintain Egypt’s security and stability, preserve its gains and role, stave off dangers away from its sons, restore calm to all Egyptians and bring back life to normal, I call upon all of you to contribute to reaching this target. I have no doubt that the people are capable of defending their interests.
5- We have launched dialogue and reached understandings, and I drew a road map to implement most of the demands according to time available. Yet, the door is still open before more dialogue.
6- Within this context, I stress the following:
a- I am committed to take all necessary measures for peaceful transfer of power according to the constitution provisions.
b- I declare my adherence to implementing all my pledges in terms of national dialogue procedures, and what will be agreed upon later.
c- Maintaining the youth revolution and its gains.
d- Restoring trust with the respect of constitution and law.
e- Realizing the people’s demand through conscious and civilized dialogue.
7- Out of this, I call upon all citizens to look forward to the future as we can make it brighter and full of freedom and democracy. This great people will never slip into hazardous chaos and will not allow people who have agendas of sabotage and intimidation to be among us.
8- Let us go together along a new path that realizes the aspirations of the youth and all generations for a safe and stable life where love for the homeland prevails. The homeland deserves from all of us to be maintained and to be sacrificed for.
9- Egypt’s youth and heroes, please go back to your homes and works. The homeland needs your efforts to build, develop and create. Do not listen to predacious radios and TV channels that have nothing to do but to ignite sedition, weaken Egypt and tarnish its image. Just listen to what your conscience dictates, your estimation and your awareness of the perils surrounding us.
10- We have started work depending on our institutions on top of which is the brave armed forces that protected the youth revolution, defended the homeland and its constitutional legitimacy and maintained the citizens’ security and properties.
11- It is high time to go, being confident in the people’s solidity and capability to overcome hardships and confront challenges. We will work as a team work with Egyptian relentless resolve.
12- I have pledged to God and you to work for this homeland with all my capabilities to maintain its security and the people’s prosperity.
May Peace, Mercy and Blessings of Allah be Upon you.
Second Statement by President Mubarak – (on Thursday, Feb.10/’11 – about 10pm)
Though it was expected to be his resignation speech, Mubarak insisted on staying as President while delegating the power of the President to the Vice President. He also made some concessions.
The full text was posted on this blog – (link)
The 1st Communiqué of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces(On Thursday, Feb 10/’11 – about 5pm)
Statement of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Based on the responsibility of the Armed Forces, and its commitment to protect the people, and to oversee their interests and security, and with a view to the safety of the nation and the citizenry, and of the achievements and properties of the great people of Egypt, and in affirmation and support for the legitimate demands of the people, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces convened Thursday, 10 February 2011, to consider developments to date, and decided to remain in continuous session to consider what procedures and measures that may be taken to protect the nation, and the achievements and aspirations of the great people of Egypt.
Fisrt Statement by President Mubarak – – (on Thursday, Feb. 02/’11)
“I talk to you during critical times that are testing Egypt and its people which could sweep them into the unknown.
“The country is passing through difficult times and tough experiences which began with noble youths and citizens who practise their rights to peaceful demonstrations and protests, expressing their concerns and aspirations but they were quickly exploited by those who sought to spread chaos and violence, confrontation and to violate the constitutional legitimacy and to attack it.
“Those protests were transformed from a noble and civilised phenomenon of practising freedom of expression to unfortunate clashes, mobilised and controlled by political forces that wanted to escalate and worsen the situation.
“They targeted the nation’s security and stability through acts of provocation theft and looting and setting fires and blocking roads and attacking vital installations and public and private properties and storming some diplomatic missions.
“We are living together painful days and the most painful thing is the fear that affected the huge majority of Eyptians and caused concern and anxiety over what tomorrow could bring them and their families and the future of their country.
“The events of the last few days require us all as a people and as a leadership to chose between chaos and stability and to set in front of us new circumstances and a new Egyptian reality which our people and armed forces must work with wisely and in the interest of Egypt and its citizens.
“Dear brothers and citizens, I took the initiative of forming a new government with new priorities and duties that respond to the demand of our youth and their mission.
“I entrusted the vice-president with the task of holding dialogue with all the political forces and factions about all the issues that have been raised concerning political and democratic reform and the constitutional and legislative amendments required to realise these legitimate demands and to restore law and order.
“But there are some political forces who have refused this call to dialogue, sticking to their particular agendas without concern for the current delicate circumstances of Egypt and its people.
“In light of this refusal to the call for dialogue and this is a call which remains standing, I direct my speech today directly to the people, its Muslims and Christians, old and young, peasants and workers, and all Egyptian men and women in the countryside and city over the whole country.
“I have never, ever been seeking power and the people know the difficult circumstances that I shouldered my responsibility and what I offered this country in war and peace, just as I am a man from the armed forces and it is not in my nature to betray the trust or give up my responsibilities and duties.
“My primary responsibility now is security and independence of the nation to ensure a peaceful transfer of power in circumstances that protect Egypt and the Egyptians and allow handing over responsibility to whoever the people choose in the coming presidential election.
“I say in all honesty and regardless of the current situation that I did not intend to nominate myself for a new presidential term. I have spent enough years of my life in the service of Egypt and its people.
“I am now absolutely determined to finish my work for the nation in a way that ensures handing over its safe-keeping and banner … preserving its legitimacy and respecting the constitution.
“I will work in the remaining months of my term to take the steps to ensure a peaceful transfer of power.
“According to my constitutional powers, I call on parliament in both its houses to discuss amending Article 76 and 77 of the constitution concerning the conditions on running for presidency of the republic and it sets specific a period for the presidential term.
“In order for the current parliament in both houses to be able to discuss these constitutional amendments and the legislative amendments linked to it for laws that complement the constitution and to ensure the participation of all the political forces in these discussions, I demand parliament to adhere to the word of the judiciary and its verdicts concerning the latest cases which have been legally challenged.
“I will entrust the new government to perform in ways that will achieve the legitimate rights of the people and that its performance should express the people and their aspirations of political, social and economic reform and to allow job opportunities and combating poverty, realising social justice.
“In this context, I charge the police apparatus to carry out its duty in serving the people, protecting the citizens with integrity and honour with complete respect for their rights, freedom and dignity.
“I also demand the judicial and supervisory authorities to take immediately the necessary measures to continue pursuing outlaws and to investigate those who caused the security disarray and those who undertook acts of theft, looting and setting fires and terrorising citizens.
“This is my pledge to the people during the last remaining months of my current term.
“I ask God to help me to honour this pledge to complete my vocation to Egypt and its people in what satisfies God, the nation and its people.
“Dear citizens, Egypt will emerge from these current circumstances stronger, more confident and unified and stable. And our people will emerge with more awareness of how to achieve reconciliation and be more determined not to undermine its future and destiny.
“Hosni Mubarak who speaks to you today is proud of the long years he spent in the service of Egypt and its people. This dear nation is my country, it is the country of all Egyptians, here I have lived and fought for its sake and I defended its land, its sovereignty and interests and on this land I will die and history will judge me and others for our merits and faults.
“The nation remains. Visitors come and go but ancient Egypt will remain eternal, its banner and safekeeping will pass from one generation to the next. It is up to us to ensure this in pride and dignity.”
Note: except the one from Al-Jazeera, all the rest are taken from Egypt State Information Service.